The cited sweeteners are amongst the most commonly found on the French market (the list is therefore non-exhaustive).
Their benefits are manifolds, some help with the decrease of calories intake; others are used for being neither carcinogenic nor detrimental for people suffering from diabetes. Moreover, sugar substitutes can effectively find applications in multiple fields thanks to their differing properties: whilst some can resist high temperatures, others become toxic or degrade under the same conditions.
None of these substitutes are forbidden in France, but most can have side effects such as, for a high number of substitutes, disturbing the digestion process, and acting as laxative. Such nuisance are usually observed after high consumption of the sweetener (that sometimes are unattainable owing to their sweetening capacity, which would be similar to consuming 1 kg of normal sugar per day). Furthermore, part of those sweeteners have also been suspected of causing issues relating to reproductions, on reproductive systems, or on the foetus...).
|Name [1,2,3]||Food additive E number [1,3]||Structure||Chemical Nomenclature (IUPAC name)||Relative Sweetness as compared to sucrose ||Caused disease (suspected or proved) [1,2,3]|
|Acesulfame potassium||E950||Potassium 6-methyl-2,2-dioxo-2H-1,2λ6,3-oxathiazin-4-olate||100-200||Cancer (suspected), premature labor||Aspartame||E951||Methyl L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate||200||Cancer (suspected), initiates multiple sclerosis, epileptic fit, premature labor, counterindicated for people suffering of phenylketonuria||Cyclamate||E952||cyclohexylsulfamate||30-50||Cancer (suspected), its metabolite cyclohexylamine has a hazardous profile, testicular atrophy. Forbidden in UE and UK||Fructose||(3R,4S)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxy-2-hexanone||20-40||Disturbs the digestion process, Same calories as sugar||Glucose||(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanal||0.7||Same calories as sugar||Isomalt||E953||(2R,3R,4R,5R)-6-[[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)- 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-tetrahydropyranyl]oxy]hexane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol||0.5||Disturbs the digestion process, Same calories as sugar for half sugared power||Lactitol||E966||(2S,3R,4R,5R)-4-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyhexane-1,2,3,5,6-pentol||0.7||Disturbs the digestion process, More calories then sugar||Maltitol||E965||(2S,3R,4R,5R)-4-[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyhexane-1,2,3,5,6-pentol||0.8||Disturbs the digestion process||Mannitol||E421||(2R,3R,4R,5R)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol||0.7||Disturbs the digestion process||Saccharin||E954||1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzothiazol-3-one||300-500||Cancer (suspected)||Sorbitol||E420||(2R,3R,4R,5S)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol||0.5||Disturbs the digestion process||Stevioside (stevia)||13-[(2-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]kaur-16-en-18-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester||250-300||Cancer (suspected), Fertility problems||Sucralose||E955||(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-2-[(2R,3S,4S,5S)-2,5-bis(chloromethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]oxy-5-chloro-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4-diol||500-700||Hazardous metabolites (suspected), Impact on intestinal bacteria (suspected)||Tagatose||E963||(3S,4S,5R)-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol||0.7||Disturbs the digestion process, Abdominal pain||Thaumatin||E957||Mix of different proteins produced by Thaumatococcus daniellii||2000-3000||Extraction method complicated to be implemented in industrial processes||Xylitol||E967||(2S,4R)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol||1||Disturbs the digestion process, Only half of sugar calories|