Team:Evry Paris-Saclay/HP/Annexe/Morane

IGEM Evry Paris-Saclay

Sugar Substitutes

The cited sweeteners are amongst the most commonly found on the French market (the list is therefore non-exhaustive).

Their benefits are manifolds, some help with the decrease of calories intake; others are used for being neither carcinogenic nor detrimental for people suffering from diabetes. Moreover, sugar substitutes can effectively find applications in multiple fields thanks to their differing properties: whilst some can resist high temperatures, others become toxic or degrade under the same conditions.

None of these substitutes are forbidden in France, but most can have side effects such as, for a high number of substitutes, disturbing the digestion process, and acting as laxative. Such nuisance are usually observed after high consumption of the sweetener (that sometimes are unattainable owing to their sweetening capacity, which would be similar to consuming 1 kg of normal sugar per day). Furthermore, part of those sweeteners have also been suspected of causing issues relating to reproductions, on reproductive systems, or on the foetus...).

Table 1. The most common sweeteners found on the French market.
Name [1,2,3] Food additive E number [1,3] Structure Chemical Nomenclature (IUPAC name) Relative Sweetness as compared to sucrose [3] Caused disease (suspected or proved) [1,2,3]
Acesulfame potassium E950 Potassium 6-methyl-2,2-dioxo-2H-1,2λ6,3-oxathiazin-4-olate 100-200 Cancer (suspected), premature labor
Aspartame E951 Methyl L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate 200 Cancer (suspected), initiates multiple sclerosis, epileptic fit, premature labor, counterindicated for people suffering of phenylketonuria
Cyclamate E952 cyclohexylsulfamate 30-50 Cancer (suspected), its metabolite cyclohexylamine has a hazardous profile, testicular atrophy. Forbidden in UE and UK
Fructose (3R,4S)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxy-2-hexanone 20-40 Disturbs the digestion process, Same calories as sugar
Glucose (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanal 0.7 Same calories as sugar
Isomalt E953 (2R,3R,4R,5R)-6-[[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)- 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-tetrahydropyranyl]oxy]hexane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol 0.5 Disturbs the digestion process, Same calories as sugar for half sugared power
Lactitol E966 (2S,3R,4R,5R)-4-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyhexane-1,2,3,5,6-pentol 0.7 Disturbs the digestion process, More calories then sugar
Maltitol E965 (2S,3R,4R,5R)-4-[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyhexane-1,2,3,5,6-pentol 0.8 Disturbs the digestion process
Mannitol E421 (2R,3R,4R,5R)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol 0.7 Disturbs the digestion process
Saccharin E954 1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzothiazol-3-one 300-500 Cancer (suspected)
Sorbitol E420 (2R,3R,4R,5S)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol 0.5 Disturbs the digestion process
Stevioside (stevia) 13-[(2-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]kaur-16-en-18-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester 250-300 Cancer (suspected), Fertility problems
Sucralose E955 (2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-2-[(2R,3S,4S,5S)-2,5-bis(chloromethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]oxy-5-chloro-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4-diol 500-700 Hazardous metabolites (suspected), Impact on intestinal bacteria (suspected)
Tagatose E963 (3S,4S,5R)-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol 0.7 Disturbs the digestion process, Abdominal pain
Thaumatin E957 Mix of different proteins produced by Thaumatococcus daniellii 2000-3000 Extraction method complicated to be implemented in industrial processes
Xylitol E967 (2S,4R)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol 1 Disturbs the digestion process, Only half of sugar calories


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