So far China has legislated to control the usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and food industries. More specifically, according to our investigation, the GMOs laws regulating the environmental effects of planting genetically modified soybean, oilseed rape, and corn are emphasized. However, China has not yet legislated against industrial application of GMOs. What our team research into was " Agricultural Genetically Modified Organisms Control Ordinance " of Chinese Order No.304 of the State Council. Under the new, stricter GMOs rules, both foreign suppliers and local importers must apply for GMOs safety certificates and labeling certificates from China's Ministry of Agriculture.
To take strict precautions against damaging environment and our health, we analyzed two acts that are related to our experiment. The third act defined GMOs as genetically processed plants, animals, microbes, and their products, including:
- Genetically modified animals, plants (seeds, breeding livestock, aquatic fingerlings), and microbes.
- Genetically modified animals, plants, and microbe products.
- Directly processed GMOs.
- Seeds, living stocks, aquatic fingerlings, pesticides, veterinary medicine, fertilizers, and chemical additives containing genetically modified ingredients.
Moreover, the thirteenth act is especially crucial to our experiment since it is about safety requirement when experimenting. The GMOs experiment should be undertaken in three processes: intermediate test, environmental release, and production test. First, the intermediate test is the small-scaled experiment which can be controlled and monitored by testers. Second, the environmental release is the middle-scaled experiment under natural conditions with safety precautions. Last, the production test is the large-scaled experiment before actually producing and exercising GMOs.
Other petroleum degrading methods
The mechanism of degradation of white-rot fungi relies on an ectoenzyme system synthesized and secreted by fungi, which spontaneously produces hydrogen peroxide with the presence of oxygen and therefore oxides substrates.
Advantages of white-rot fungi include:
- No precondition is needed.
- Able to lower contamination level to determination limit.
- Strong oxidation power which can oxidize proteins from other organisms.
- Harmless to the fungi itself as the enzyme is secreted.
- Wide application range, not specific to only one substrate.
- Low need for nourishment, cost is low.
Factors influencing degrading rate:
- Leaves compost suppress fungi growth.
- Soil without sterilization promotes degradation rate of fungi.
- Degradation rate increase as time of ozone treatment of soil increases.
The surfactant secrets by Strain Lj2 has ideal emulsibility and surface activity, which adapt to degrade petroleum pollutants in ocean well, since this stain has high sustainability to NaCl.
Surfactant Triton x-100
Using surfactant singly will remove the petroleum hydrocarbon off from the soil colloid, but causes secondary pollution as well. Adding Triton x-100 surfactant promotes the degradation of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) in soil, whereas it suppresses the degradation in highly contaminated soil.
The CMC of Tween80 in the distilled water is 25mg/L, which has ideal adsorbability of spetroleum particle. Also it is nontoxic so that it can be utilized by microorganism as a carbon source. The concentration of hydrocarbon in petroleum water increase if the concentration of Tween80 increases. However the The concentration of hydrocarbon in petroleum water spetroleum system decrease, if the concentration of Tween80 increases. When the concentration of Tween80 is 5CMC(125mg/L), the degradation rate is highest, is 42.19%. When adding to the mixture of bacteria, the shaking-bottle incubating test indicate that the best nitrogen resource is (NH4)2SO4, the best phosphorus resource is KH2PO4, the optional C:N:P is 100:4:0.67, the optional environment range is 30-35℃ and the optional initial pH is 7-8。 The laboratory simulation of the effect of Tween80 shows that after 80 days, the concentration of hydrocarbon eliminated significantly in petroleum polluted lands, and the features of land changed from a dark solid tight brick to a lighter loose structure. The degradation rate when Tween80 add to bacterias up to 76.85&.